Monomers | Definition, Types, Structure, Examples (2023)

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  • Introduction
  • How do I identify the monomers?
  • Monomena classification
  • Natural monomers
  • Monous
    • Features
    • Structure
    • The type
    • Formula general
    • Chemical combinations
    • Appear
  • amino acids
    • Structure
    • Amino acid classification
    • Chemical combinations
    • Appear
  • nucleotide
    • Structure
    • Nucleotide species
    • Chemical compound
    • Appear
  • Fatty acids and alcohol
  • Isopreno
  • abstract
    • frequent questions
      • What are monomers?
      • What are the monomers of proteins?
      • What are the monomers of nucleic acids?
      • What are the monomers of the cellulose?
  • References


Monomers can be defined as small molecules that bind with larger molecules. To completely understand the concept of monomers, we first read our definition of molecules.The molecules are defined as stable pure particles that are formed by the chemical combination of two or moreatomsThese can be macromolecules or macromolecules.

The monomers belong to the category of micromolecules. They are the smallest form of pure stable substance that can be combined to form huge molecules or macromolecules. Identical monomers are united through different types of chemical links to form huge molecules that are called polymers.Article, we, we, we, will discuss monomers in terms of size, classification, structures, chemical combinations, their appearance and different facts.

How do I identify the monomers?

There is no specific size of monomers in the literature, since monomers of different categories or even in the same category can vary in size. The easiest way to identify a monomer with a molecular formula according to the general formula of this classFor example, the general formula for carbohydrate monomers (choose2Ö)X.2Ö)6Follow the general formula of carbohydrate monomers.

Monomena classification

The monomers are divided into two large categories, natural monomers and synthetic monomers.

  • Natural monomers are the organic molecules that exist in nature and merge to form larger biological molecules. These molecules are responsible for all life forms on our planet.
  • Synthetic monomers are artificially combining different atoms for the good joke of humanity. These synthetic monomers are reacted to form larger molecules that are used in industries for various advantageous purposes.

Natural monomers

As already mentioned, there are natural monomers that already exist in nature and build the blocks of life on earth. They are joined to form larger molecules that lead to the formation of complex structures of living beings.

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Natural monomers or biological monomers are divided into four categories.

  • Monous
  • amino acids
  • nucleotide
  • Fat and alcohol acids
  • Isopreno

All these monomers are analyzed in detail below.


Monomers | Definition, Types, Structure, Examples (1)

These are monomers or complex carbohydrate construction blocks. Monosaccharides suffer chemical combinations to form complex carbohydrate molecules such as resistance, cellulose and glycogen.


It is known that monosaccharides have the following properties;

  • They contain only one sugar molecule.
  • They have three to seven carbon atoms.
  • SON POLI -Hydroxy -Adhide the ketone.
  • It cannot submit to hydrolysis.
  • They are cute in the taste.
  • They are completely soluble in the water.
  • Some of them may have a ring structure.


From a chemical point of view, all poly-hydroxy or ketone aldehyde monosaccharides are connected to a hydroxyl group with the exception of the atom, which is part of a group of villages or a group of ketone.

The type

Based on the number of carbon atoms in their structure, monosaccharides have types below;

  • Gliceraldehído y dihidroxiaceton Gliceralda.
  • Tetrrroen as erythrus and erythulous.
  • Pentous like ribose and ribulosa.
  • Witches include glucose, fructose and galactosis.
  • Tal sdoheptulosa heptosada.

Biologically important monosaccharides are cuts, pentous and hexous.

Formula general

Monosaccharides have a general formula (choose2Ö)Xwhere x = number of carbon atoms. This shows that the number of water molecules in a monosaccharide is equal to the number of carbon atoms contained in it.

Chemical combinations

Monosaccharides combine glucosidic bonds to larger molecules such as disaccharides, trisaccharides and polysaccharides. A disaccharide, three to form a trisaccharide, etc.


They are present in all complex biological structures in a combined form. Combined glucose is available in resistance, cellulose, glycogen, etc. The monosaccharides can be found in fruits and some body fluids freely. For example, glucose is present inFig. 1 and 2, data, grapes, etc., is also available in human blood free. Fructose is available in human sperm.

amino acids

Amino acids are monomers or protein construction blocks. All structural and functional proteins in our body consist of amino acids. The simplest molecules that are obtained after the complete hydrolysis of proteins are called amino acids.


All amino acids consist of an amino group (-nh3) and a carboxyl group (-COOH) that is connected to the central carbon atom known as alpha carbon.based on each other. In the structure of the side chain (-R).

Amino acid classification

There are several criteria for the classification of amino acids.

According to the availability of amino acids, they are classified as classified;

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  • Essential amino acids: They are not formed in the human body and should be taken in the form of a diet to meet the requirements of the body.
  • Non -essential amino acids: of course, they form in the human body and do not cause any damage if they are not available in nutrition.

According to the structure of the side chain, some of the amino acid classes are the following;

  • Hydrophilic amino acids: They are soluble water.
  • Hydrophobo amino acids: they are insoluble in water.
  • Polar amino acid: you have a polar structure.
  • Non -polar amino acids: It has a non -polar structure.
  • Sulfura acids: They contain a sulfur atom in their side chain.


Chemical combinations

Amino acids are combined in larger molecules through peptide links3) An amino acid reacts with the carboxyl group (-COOH) from another amino acid and a water molecule is released as a byproduct. All amino acids in the complex protein structure are connected by several peptide bonds. Amino acids are called dipéptide.

A dipéptide molecule also has an amino group (-nh3) At one end, while a carboxyl group (-COOH) can react with other amino acids at the other end to form longer structures. In this way, the length of the chain continues and creates complex proteins that contains several thousand amino acids.


Amino acids always exist in nature. They are available in animal and herbal proteins. People consume amino acids in the form of meat and milk, etc.The proteins present in these forms of nutrition are divided into the stomach to release individual amino acids that are absorbed by blood in the intestine.


These are the nucleic acid construction blocks such as DNA and RNA.Pase all genetic material and information to the next generation of cells.


The structure of monomers is not as easy as that of amino acids and monosaccharides. They are soon as these monomers consist of three different molecules that are;

  1. A ptosis sugar molecule (which can be ribose or oxi ribosis)
  2. A base that contains nitrogen
  3. One or more phosphate groups

The sugar and phosphate molecule groups are connected to a single base that contains nitrogen to form a nucleotide.

Nucleotide species

Based on the type of ptosis sugar can be nucleotides;

  1. Ribonucleotide (containing ribosis sugar)
  2. Oxyxi -ribonucleotide (containing deoxygenated ribosis sugar)

Nucleotides also vary according to the type of nitrogen base available in their structure. Nitrogen bases present in nucleotides are of two types

  1. Purine (you have two rings in your structure)
  2. Pyrimidine (you only have one ring in your structure)

Chemical compound

The phosphate group of a nucleotide reacts with the hydroxy group present in the ptosis sugar of another nucleotide to form a chemical bond at the other end.The ends are ready to react with other nucleotides, form phosphodiators and expand the nucleotide chain. The long chains of these monomers, that is, nucleotides form nucleic acids.


Nucleotides are available in all living cells. They are available in free and combined forms. Adenosine Typhosfat (ATP) is an example of free nucleotide that is present in all metabolic active cells and RNA is presented in the nucleus and in thecytoplasm.

Fatty acids and alcohol

Monomers | Definition, Types, Structure, Examples (2)

Although they are generally not applicable, fatty acids and alcohols can be seen as lipid monomers. Fatty acids react with alcohol that form a connection of ester and form lipids.

Triglycerides and phospholipids are more important in this regard.

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As the name implies, triglycerides consist of three fatty acids associated with a single glycerol alcohol molecule. Glycerin and Grexes acids are known as triglycerid monomers.

Monomers that form phospholipids include the following:

  1. Two fatty acid molecules
  2. Glycerin alcohol
  3. A base that contains nitrogen
  4. A phosphate group

Fatty acids and the phosphate group form the Ester connection with glycerin. The nitrogen base is connected to the phosphate group and a phospholipid molecule is formed.


ISOOPREN are natural garbage monomers. ISOPRENE It is an organic connection that is a fleet.


Monomers are small molecules that combine using various forms of chemical links to form larger molecules.

Thousands of monomers can form large molecules, which are known as polymers.

There are no specific monomer area.

Nor is it necessary for monomers to always contain a single molecule.

The easiest way to identify a monomer is to look at its chemical formula, which always corresponds to the general formula of this kind of connection.

There are two large categories of monomers;

  • Natural monomers, of course, are present in all living organisms.
  • Artificial monomers are artificially used for people in the industry.

Natural monomers are all organic compounds responsible for all life forms on our planet. They are connected with large molecules of life, which then form complex living structures and perform functions of living bodies.

The natural monomer includes;

  • Monous
  • amino acids
  • nucleotide
  • Fatty acids and alcohol
  • Isopreno

Monosaccharides are complex carbohydrate construction blocks such as cellulose, starch and glycogen.

Monosaccharides are the simplest sugar that is soluble in water and cannot suffer hydrolysis.

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Two or monosaccharides are attached to the form of the chain and form glucosidal links.

The polymers of the monosaccharides, that is, the polysaccharides, are formed when thousands of monosaccharides are connected to long chains.

Amino acids are protein monomers.

Each amino acid consists of an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom and a side chain (-R), which is connected to alpha carbon.

Two or more amino acids are connected by peptide links to form long chains or peptides.

If several thousand amino acids connect to the shape of a chain, polypeptides are formed. These polypeptides form large proteins.

Nucleotides are nucleic acid monomers.

They join through phosphophodils to form long chains that are known as nucleic acids.

Fatty acids and alcohol are monomers of different lipids, such as fats, oils, triglycerides and phospholipids, etc.

The isoprene are the natural rubber monomers that make different plants.

frequent questions

What are monomers?

The monomers are small molecules that connect to polymers. They are the simplest representatives of their class. They have a basic structure that only there are a few atoms.

What are the monomers of proteins?

Amino acids are protein monomers. Individual aminal acids combine in long polypeptide chains during translation. These polypeptide chains will avoid structural changes to form complex proteins.

What are the monomers of nucleic acids?

Nucleotides are nucleic acid emonomy such as DNA and RNA. Nucleotides are connected by polymerase enzymes for polymer production.

What are the monomers of the cellulose?

Glucose molecules are cellularos. These molecules are connected in linear chains to find cellulose on plant cell walls.

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  1. Matthews, C. E .; K.E.VAN HOLDE; KG.ahern (1999) Biochemistry.ISBN0-8053-3066-6
  2. N.A.Campbell (1996) biología (4. 4. Temas) .Bamine cummings ny.p.2ISBN0-8053-1957-3
  3. International union of applied pure chemistry,et al.(2000)Iupac Gold Book, So,Polymerization
  4. Clayden, Jonathan;Greeves, Nick;Warren, Stuart;Wothers, Peter(2001).Organic Chemistry (1st ed.). Press of the University of Oxford.pp.1450-1466.ISBN978-0-19-850346-0.
  5. "Glossary of the basic concepts in the scientific polymer (IUPAC recommendations 1996)".Pure and applied chemistry.68(12): 2287–2311.1996.doi:10.1351/Baixo 19966812287.
  6. D. Margerison, G. C. East, J.E. Spice (1967). Una introducción a Polymerchemie.Pergamon Press.ISBN978-0-08-011891-8.


What are the 4 types of monomers? ›

There are four main types of monomer, including sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides. Each of these monomer types play important roles in the existence and development of life, and each one can be synthesized abiotically.

What are 20 types of monomers? ›

Amino acids are the monomers which make up proteins. Amino acids are the monomer units. There are only 20 common amino acids found in these 10,000 proteins.

What are the 5 types of monomers? ›

What are Monomers?
  • Carbohydrates - monosaccharides.
  • Lipids - glycerol and fatty acids.
  • Nucleic acids - nucleotides.
  • Proteins - amino acids.
30 Jun 2015

What are some examples of monomers? ›

Glucose, vinyl chloride, amino acids, and ethylene are examples of monomers. Each monomer may link in different ways to form a variety of polymers. In the case of glucose, for example, glycosidic bonds may link sugar monomers to form such polymers as glycogen, starch, and cellulose.

What are the 3 parts of the monomer? ›

The monomers of DNA are called nucleotides. Nucleotides have three components: a base, a sugar (deoxyribose) and a phosphate residue.

What is the basic structure of each type of monomer? ›

Comparing the Biological Macromolecules
MacromoleculeBasic Formula, key featuresMonomer
ProteinsCHON −NH2 + −COOH +R groupAmino acids
LipidsC:H:O Greater than 2:1 H:O (carboxyl group)Fatty acid and glycerol
CarbohydratesC:H:O 1:2:1Monosaccharides
Nucleic AcidsCHONP pentose, nitrogenous base, phosphateNucleotides

What are 20 examples of molecules? ›

Examples of Molecules
  • H2O (water)
  • N2 (nitrogen)
  • O3 (ozone)
  • CaO (calcium oxide)
  • C6H12O6 (glucose, a type of sugar)
  • NaCl (table salt)

What are the 4 monomers of proteins? ›

Monomers are divided into different classes such as alcohols, sugars, acrylics, amines, and epoxides. All living organisms have cells with many large molecules like polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins.

What is called monomer? ›

monomer, a molecule of any of a class of compounds, mostly organic, that can react with other molecules to form very large molecules, or polymers. The essential feature of a monomer is polyfunctionality, the capacity to form chemical bonds to at least two other monomer molecules.

What are monomers Class 11? ›

A monomer is defined as a simple molecule with two or more binding sites through which it forms covalent linkages with other monomer molecules to form the macromolecule. Monomers are thus building blocks of polymers. Only those simple molecules with two or more bonding sites can act as monomers.

What is polymer example? ›

Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, including, for example, proteins, cellulose, and nucleic acids. Moreover, they constitute the basis of such minerals as diamond, quartz, and feldspar and such man-made materials as concrete, glass, paper, plastics, and rubbers.

What are the 4 types of polymers? ›

Types of polymers. There are several types of polymers. Among the main ones are: natural, synthetic, addition, condensation and rearrangement.

What is a common monomer? ›

Glucose and related sugars

For carbohydrates, the monomers are monosaccharides. The most abundant natural monomer is glucose, which is linked by glycosidic bonds into the polymers cellulose, starch, and glycogen.

Is DNA An example of a monomer? ›

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides.

What are the 4 types of DNA? ›

There are four nucleotides, or bases, in DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).

What are the 3 structures of DNA? ›

The building blocks of DNA are nucleotides, which are made up of three parts: a deoxyribose (5-carbon sugar), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (Figure 9.3).

What are the 4 organic compounds and their monomers? ›

Amino acids, nucleotides, monosaccharides, and fatty acids are the monomers, which produce natural polymers proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and lipids, respectively.

What are the 4 major types of molecules that are components of this structure? ›

There are four major classes of biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids), and each is an important component of the cell and performs a wide array of functions. Combined, these molecules make up the majority of a cell's mass.

What is the structure of the monomer and polymer? ›

A polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of small repeating singular molecular structural units called monomers. The repeating molecular units are joined together chemically through covalent bonds. The word polymer comes from the Greek “poly” (many) and “meros” (part).

What are the 7 molecules? ›

There are only seven of them: hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The diatomic elements are also called homonuclear molecules, which means that the molecule is made up of all the same type of atom.

What are 3 examples of a compound? ›

Water, carbon dioxide and table salt are some examples of compounds.

What is an example of an ion? ›

Many normal substances exist in the body as ions. Common examples include sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and bicarbonate. These substances are known as electrolytes. Ions can be created using radiation such as x-rays.

What are examples of monomer of carbohydrates? ›

The common monomers of carbohydrates are simple sugars like glucose and fructose. It is also one of the four basic macromolecules of life. Monosaccharides - these are the simple sugars. Mono means one and saccharides mean sugar.

Is glucose a monomer? ›

1. Glucose is one of several different carbohydrate monomers called monosaccharides.

What is monomer of nucleic acid? ›

Nucleic acids are giant biomolecules made of monomers called nucleotides. Nucleotides have three components: pentose sugar (5-carbon sugar), phosphate group, and nitrogenous base.

Is water a monomer? ›

However, water is the epitome of a green monomer, being sustainable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic, abundant, and cheap. Water has only been employed in some multicomponent polymerization reactions in which three or more starting materials are combined in one step.

Is protein a monomer? ›

For example, proteins are composed of monomers called amino acids. They are linked together to form a polypeptide chain, which folds into a three dimensional (3D) structure to constitute a functional protein (Figure 1).

Is a monomer a chain? ›

Monomers are molecules that can react together with other monomer molecules to form a larger polymer chain or three-dimensional network in a process called polymerization.

What is a molecule class 7? ›

A group of two or more than two atoms of the same or different elements that are chemically bonded together is called a molecule. For example, two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen react with each other and form one molecule of water.

What are the 3 main molecules? ›

There are four major classes of large biological molecules—carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called monosaccharides that contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

What are the 10 examples of compound? ›

11 Compounds We Use In Everyday Life
  • Water. ADVERTISEMENT. ...
  • Table Salt. Chemical Formula: NaCl. ...
  • Sucrose (Sugar) Chemical Formula: C12H22O11. ...
  • Soaps. Chemical Formula: RCOONa, Where R is a long chain of carbon atoms ranging from 16-18 in number. ...
  • Toothpaste. Chemical Formula: CaCO3 or NaF. ...
  • Baking Powder. ...
  • Mouthwash. ...
  • Nailpaint Remover.

What is monomer in biology? ›

Monomers are the smaller units from which larger molecules are made. Polymers are molecules made from a large number of monomers joined together. Monosaccharides, amino acids and nucleotides are examples of monomers.

Is cellulose a monomer? ›

Cellulose is made of repeat units of the monomer glucose. This is the same glucose which your body metabolizes in order to live, but you can't digest it in the form of cellulose. Because cellulose is built out of a sugar monomer, it is called a polysaccharide.

What are the 4 main macromolecules and the monomers of each? ›

As we've learned, there are four major classes of biological macromolecules:
  • Proteins (polymers of amino acids)
  • Carbohydrates (polymers of sugars)
  • Lipids (polymers of lipid monomers)
  • Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA; polymers of nucleotides)

What are the 6 types of polymers? ›

The eight most common types of synthetic organic polymers, which are commonly found in households are:
  • Low-density polyethylene (LDPE)
  • High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
  • Polypropylene (PP)
  • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  • Polystyrene (PS)
  • Nylon, nylon 6, nylon 6,6.
  • Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene)
  • Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU)

What are the 3 main polymers? ›

Polymers are long molecules composed of chains of units called monomers. Several important biological polymers include proteins, starch, cellulose, and DNA.

What are the 5 types of natural polymers? ›

Examples of naturally occurring polymers are silk, wool, DNA, cellulose and proteins. In our previous section on network polymers, we mentioned vulcanized rubber and pectin.

What are polymers 12? ›

15.1 Polymers are high molecular mass substances consisting of large numbers of repeating structural units. They are also called as macromolecules. Some examples of polymers are polythene, bakelite, rubber, nylon 6, 6, etc. 15.2 (i) Hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid.

What are the 5 properties of polymers? ›

Physical properties of polymers include molecular weight, molar volume, density, degree of polymerization, crystallinity of material, and so on.

What are the 20 monomers that make up proteins? ›

20 Monomers of Proteins
HydrophobicHydrophilicIn between the two forms
Leucine (Leu)Glutamic acid (Glu)Alanine (Ala)
Isoleucine (Ile)Glutamine (Gln)Serine (Ser)
Methionine (Met)Histidine (His)Threonine (Thr)
Phenylalanine ((Phe)Lysine (Lys)Tyrosine (Tyr)
3 more rows

What are 2 monomers together called? ›

The monomers combine with each other via covalent bonds to form larger molecules known as polymers. In doing so, monomers release water molecules as byproducts.

What is a sugar monomer? ›

Simple Sugar Monomers. Simple sugars are monomers called monosaccharides. Monosaccharides contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules. These monomers can form long chains that make up polymers known as carbohydrates, the energy-storing molecules found in food.

What are the 5 monomers of DNA and RNA? ›

1. Introduction. Are the five biologically relevant DNA and RNA base monomers cytosine (C), thymine (T), uracil (U), adenine (A), and guanine (G) the best molecules that natural selection could have chosen to build the genetic code among other close tautomers and derivatives?

Is RNA monomer or polymer? ›

DNA and RNA are polymers (in the case of DNA, often very long polymers), and are made up of monomers known as nucleotides. When these monomers combine, the resulting chain is called a polynucleotide (poly- = "many").

What is the monomer of lipids? ›

The Glycerol and fatty acids are described as the monomers of lipids.

What are the 4 main polymers? ›

The four main classes of biological polymers are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

What are the 4 types of molecules? ›

There are four major classes of large biological molecules—carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called monosaccharides that contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

Is DNA a protein? ›

No, DNA is not a protein. The major relationship between DNA and protein is that DNA encodes the information that is necessary to synthesize proteins. But DNA itself is not a protein. DNA is composed of long chains of nucleotides.

What are the 3 functions of proteins? ›

Major Functions of Proteins
  • Provide Structure. Structural proteins are a type of protein responsible for cell shape and providing support to major structures, such as hair, skin, and bones. ...
  • Regulate Body Processes. Proteins regulate many processes within the body. ...
  • Transport Materials.
19 Oct 2021

What are 10 common molecules? ›

Molecule Examples
  • Acetic acid - CH3COOH.
  • Benitoite - BaTiSi3O9
  • Caffeine - C8H10N4O2
  • Calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH)2
  • Chlorine - Cl2
  • Dieldrin - C12H8Cl6O.
  • Estradiol - C18H24O2
  • Fool's Gold (Iron Sulfide) - FeS2

What are the 8 examples of organic compounds? ›

Organic compounds examples are benzoic Acid, aromatic compounds, benzoic aldehyde, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, malonic acid, amines, heterocyclic compounds, VOC, benzoic acid, and diethyl malonate.

What are 5 examples of organic substances? ›

Examples of organic compounds are carbohydrates, fats (lipids), proteins, and nucleic acids, which are the basis for the molecules of life. Organic compounds also include petroleum and natural gas, which are the main components of fossil fuels.

What are 4 examples of organic molecules? ›

The four main groups of biologically important organic compounds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.


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