Mix C and C++ code in the same program (2023)

For himEsteban Klamm, February 2011 (updated June 2016)

The C++ language provides mechanisms for mixing code compiled by compatible C and C++ compilers in the same program. You may have varying degrees of success porting this code to different platforms and compilers. This article shows you how to resolve common issues that arise when mixing C and C++ code, and highlights areas where you may encounter portability issues. In all cases, we show what is needed when using the Oracle Developer Studio C and C++ compilers.


  • Use compatible compilers
  • Access to C code within C++ source
  • Accessing C++ code from C source
  • Access C++ classes from C
  • Mix of IOstream and C standard I/O
  • Working with function pointers
  • Working with C++ exceptions
  • start the program

Use compatible compilers

The first requirement for mixing code is that the C and C++ compilers used must be compatible. For example, you should define primitive types like int, float, or pointer in the same way. The Oracle Solaris OS specifies the Application Binary Interface (ABI) for C programs, which contains information about basic types and how to call functions. Any useful compiler for Oracle Solaris must follow this ABI.

The Oracle Developer Studio C and C++ compilers follow the Oracle Solaris ABI and are compatible. Third-party C compilers for Oracle Solaris often follow the ABI as well. Any C compiler that is compatible with the Oracle Developer Studio C compiler is also compatible with the Oracle Developer Studio C++ compiler.

The C runtime library used by your C compiler must also be compatible with the C++ compiler. C++ includes the standard C runtime library as a subset, although there are some differences. If the C++ compiler provides its own versions of C headers, the versions of those headers that the C compiler uses must be compatible.

The Oracle Developer Studio C and C++ compilers use compatible headers and the same C runtime library. They are fully compatible.

Access to C code within C++ source

The C++ language provides a "binding specification" that is used to declare that a function or object follows the program binding conventions for a supported language. The default shortcut for objects and functions is C++. All C++ compilers also support C bindings to some compatible C compilers.

If you need to access a function that was compiled using C binding (for example, a function compiled by the C compiler or a function written in assembler), declare the function using C binding. Although most C++ compilers do not have different bindings for C and C++ data objects, you must declare that C data objects have C bindings in C++ code. With the exception of the function pointer type, the types have no C or C++ bindings.

Declare binding specifications

Use one of the following notations to declare that an object or function has the language bindinglanguage name:

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extern "language name" declaration ;extern "language name" { declaration ; Explanation; 🇧🇷

The first notation indicates that the statement (or definition) immediately following it has the link oflanguage name🇧🇷 The second notation indicates that everything between braces has the link oflanguage name, unless otherwise stated. Notice that in the second notation, after the closing brace, you don't use a semicolon.

You can nest union specifications, but braces do not create scopes. Consider the following example:

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externo "C" { void f(); // enlace C externo "C++" { void g(); // enlace C++ externo "C" void h(); // Atalho C void g2(); // vincular C++ } externo "C++" void k(); // Atalho C++ void m(); // Atalho C }

All of the above functions are in the same global scope despite the nested join specifiers.

Including C headers in C++ code

If you want to use a C library with its own header definition intended for C compilers, you can include the headerexternal "C"brackets:

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(Video) Advanced C++: Mixing C and C++
externo "C" { #include "header.h"}

Warning:Do not use this technique for system headers on Oracle Solaris. The Oracle Solaris headers and all headers provided with the Oracle Developer Studio C and C++ compilers are already configured for use with C and C++ compilers. You can override declarations in Oracle Solaris headers by specifying a link.

Observation:For headers other than system headers, make sure the header is written to work with C++ compilers; that is, if you already have binding specifications. In this case, you should not include the headerexternal "C"brackets.

Creating Mixed Language Headers

If you want to create a header suitable for C and C++ compilers, you can put all the declarations in it.external "C"parentheses, but the C compiler does not recognize the syntax. Every C++ compiler predefines the macro__cplusplus, then you can use this macro to protect C++ syntax extensions:

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#ifdef __cplusplusextern "C" {#endif... // header body#ifdef __cplusplus} // closing parenthesis for extern "C"#endif

Adding C++ functions to C frameworks

Suppose you want to simplify the use of a C library in your C++ code. Suppose instead of a C-style accessor, you want to add virtual or non-virtual member functions, derive from the class, and so on. How can you perform this transformation and ensure that C library functions are still structure-aware? Consider using the Cstructure benefitin the following example:

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struct buf { char * data; unsigned account;};void buf_clear(struct buf*);int buf_print(struct buf*); // return status, 0 means failure buf_append(struct buf*, const char*, unsigned count); // same return

You want to convert this structure to a C++ class and make it easier to use with the following changes:

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extern "C" { #include "buf.h"}class mybuf { // first try -- will it work? public: mybuf() : data(0), count(0) { } void clear() { buf_clear( (buf*)más); } bool print() { return buf_print( (buf*)this ); } bool append(const char* p, sin firmar c) { return buf_append( (buf*)this, p, c ); }privado: char* data; contagem sem sinal;};

An interface forclass mybufit's more like C++ code and can be more easily integrated into an object-oriented programming style, if it works.

What happens when member functions pass thego deadpointer to thebuffunctions? Does the C++ class design match the C design? Do thatgo deadThe pointers point to theDatamember, as a pointer tobufdoes it? And if you add virtual functions?puffed?

The C++ standard makes no promises about the compatibility ofstructure benefitmiclass mybuf🇧🇷 This code without virtual functions might work, but you can't trust it. If you add virtual functions, your code will fail when using compilers that add extra data (for example, pointers to virtual tables) to the beginning of a class.

The portable solution is walkingstructure benefitstrictly solo, although you want to protect member data and only allow access via member resources. The only way to ensure C and C++ compatibility is to leave the declaration unchanged.

You can derive a C++class mybufby Cstructure benefitand pass pointers to thebufbase class forpuffedfunctions If a pointer topuffeddoes not point to the beginning of thebufdata, the C++ compiler wraps it automatically when converting amiffed*for onebuf*🇧🇷 the arrangement ofpuffedmay vary depending on the C++ compiler, but the C++ source code it handlespuffedmibufObjects work everywhere. The following example shows a portable way to add C++ and object-oriented functionality to a C framework.

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(Video) C Programming | Advance Topic And Mixing C with C++ Code

extern "C" { #include "buf.h"}class mybuf : public buf { // eine portable Lösungpublic: mybuf() : data(0), count(0) { } void clear() { buf_clear(this); } bool print() { return buf_print(esto); } bool append(const char* p, sin firmar c) { return buf_append(this, p, c); }};

C++ code can be freely created and usedpuffedobjects and passes them to C code that expectsbufobjects, and everything will work together. Of course, if you add datespuffed, the C code does not know. This is a general design consideration for class hierarchies. You must also deal with creating and deletingbufmipuffedobjects constantly. It is safer to have clean C code (libre) an object if it was created by C code and you do not allow C code to remove apuffedObject.

Accessing C++ code from C source

If you declare a C++ function using C binding, it can be called from within a function compiled by the C compiler. A function declared in a C shortcut can use any of the C++ functions, but its parameters and return type must be accessible from C if you want to call them from C code. For example, if a function is declared to accept a reference to a class IOstream as a parameter, there is no (portable) way to tell a C compiler the type of the parameter. The C language has no references, models, or classes with C++ features.

Here is an example C++ function with C binding:

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#include <iostream>extern "C" int print(int i, double d){ std::cout << "i = " << i << ", d = " << d;}

You can declare functionspressin a header file shared between C and C++ code:

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#ifdef __cplusplusextern "C"#endifint print(int i, double d);

You can declare at most one function from an overloaded set asexternal "C"because only a C function can have a specific name. If you need to access overloaded C functions, you can write C++ wrapper functions with different names, as the following example shows:

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int g(int);doble g(doble);externo "C" int g_int(int i) { return g(i); }extern "C" double g_double(doble d) { return g(d); }

Here is the example C header for the wrapper functions:

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int g_int(int);doble g_doble(doble);

You also need wrapper functions to call template functions because template functions cannot be declared asexternal "C":

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Vorlage<Klasse T> T foo(T t) { ... }extern "C" int foo_of_int(int t) { return foo(t); } externo "C" char* foo_of_charp(char* p) { return foo(p); }

C++ code can still call overloaded functions and template functions. C code must use wrapper functions.

(Video) Tutorial 05 Mixing C and C++ Code Part 1 Issues and Resolutions

Access C++ classes from C

Can you access a C++ class from C code? Can you declare a C structure that looks like a C++ class and somehow call the member functions? The answer is yes, although you may need to add some complexity to maintain portability. Also, any changes to the definition of the C++ class you access require you to revise your C code.

Suppose you have a C++ class like the following:

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Class M { public: virtual int foo(int); // ...private: int i, j;};

You cannot declare a class.METROin your C code. The best you can do is pass hints to the classMETROObjects, how to handle FILE objects in C Standard I/O. you can writeexternal "C"C++ functions that access the classMETROobjects and call them from C code. Here is a C++ function to call the member functionFoo:

extern "C" int call_M_foo(M* m, int i) { return m->foo(i); }

Here is an example of C code using classesMETRO:

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Structure M; // You can only specify an incomplete declaration int call_M_foo(struct M*, int); // declare the wrapper function int f(struct M* p, int j) // now you can call M::foo { return call_M_foo(p, j); 🇧🇷

Mix of IOstream and C standard I/O

You can use standard C I/O from the standard C <stdio.h> header in C++ programs because standard C I/O is part of C++.

Therefore, any consideration of mixing IOstream and standard I/O in the same program does not depend on whether the program specifically contains C code. The issues are the same for pure C++ programs that use both standard I/O and IOstreams.

Oracle Developer Studio C and C++ use the same C runtime libraries mentioned in the supported compilers section. Therefore, the Oracle Developer Studio compilers allow you to freely use standard I/O functions in C and C++ code in the same program.

The C++ standard states that you can mix standard I/O functions and IOstream functions in the same target "stream" as: B. the standard input and output streams. However, C++ implementations differ in their compatibility. Some systems require you to call themsync_to_stdio()Function explicitly before doing I/O. Implementations also differ in I/O efficiency when I/O styles are mixed for the same stream or file. In the worst case, you receive a system call per character input or output. If the program does a lot of I/O operations, the performance may not be acceptable.

It is safer to use only one of the standard I/O or IOstream styles for a given standard file or stream. Using standard I/O for one file or stream and IOstream for another file or stream does not cause problems.

Working with function pointers

A function pointer must indicate whether it points to a C function or a C++ function, since C and C++ functions may use different calling conventions. Otherwise, the compiler won't know what kind of function call code to generate. Most systems do not have different calling conventions for C and C++, but C++ allows for this possibility. Therefore, you must be careful when declaring function pointers to ensure that the types match. Consider the following example:

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typedef int(*fun)(int); // line 1external "C" void foo(help); // Line 2extern "C" int g(int) // Line 3...foo( g ); // Error! // line
  • Line 1 explainedpfunTarget a C++ function because it lacks a binding specifier.
  • Therefore, line 2 explainsFoobe a C function that takes a pointer to a C++ function.
  • Line 5 is trying to callFoowith a pointer upgram, a C function, a type mismatch.

Take care to match the association of a pointer to a function with the functions it will point to. In the corrected example below, all declarations are includedexternal "C"Parentheses to ensure types match.

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(Video) Mixing C and C++ code

outer "C" { typedef int (*pfun)(int); null foo(pfun); int g(int);}foo(g); // Now everything is fine

Function pointers have another nicety that can occasionally trip up programmers. A combination specification applies to all parameter types and the return type of a function. If you use the elaborate declaration of a function pointer in a function parameter, a binding specification on the function also applies to the function pointer. If you declare a pointer to a function with adef type, its union specificationdef typeit is not affected by its use in a function declaration. For example, consider this code:

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typedef int (*pfn)(int);extern "C" void foo(pfn p) { ... } // definiciónextern "C" void foo( int (*)(int) ); // Explicación

The first two lines can appear in a program file and the third line can appear in a header where you don't want to reveal the name of the private typedef. Even though you wanted an explanationFooand to match your definition, they don't. The definition ofFootakes a pointer to a C++ function, but the declaration ofFootakes a pointer to a C function. The code declares a couple of overloaded functions. The program may not be able to create a shortcut due to an unresolved icon.

To avoid this problem, use typedefs consistently in declarations or include the typedefs in the appropriate binding specifications. For example, whenever you wantFooTo get a pointer to a C function, you can write the definition ofFooHere:

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externo "C" { typedef int (*pfn)(int); foo vacío (pfn p) { ... }}

Working with C++ exceptions

propagate exceptions

What happens when you call a C++ function from a C function and the C++ function throws an exception? The C++ standard is a bit vague about whether you can expect exceptions to behave correctly, and on some systems you need to take extra precautions. In general, you should consult the user guides to see if the code works correctly.

No special precautions are needed with Oracle Developer Studio C++. The exception mechanism in Oracle Developer Studio C++ does not affect how functions are called. If a C function is active when a C++ exception is thrown, the C function will be ignored when handling the exception.

Mix exceptions with set_jmp and long_jmp

The best advice is not to uselargo_jmpin programs that contain C++ code. A C++ exception mechanism and C++ rules for destroying objects that are out of scope are likely to be violated by alargo_jmp, with unpredictable results. Some compilers incorporate exceptions andlargo_jmpto allow them to work together, but you should not rely on such behavior. Oracle Developer Studio C++ uses the sameset_jmpmilargo_jmpas a C compiler.

Some C++ experts think solargo_jmpit should not be built with exceptions, since it is difficult to specify exactly how it should behave.

and uselargo_jmpIn C code that mixes with C++, make sure that onelargo_jmpit does not go through a C++ active function. If you can't guarantee that, see if you can compile this C++ code with exceptions disabled. You may still have problems with local object destructors being ignored.

start the program

Previously, most C++ compilers required this featuremainlycompiled by the C++ compiler. This requirement is not common today and is not required by Oracle Developer Studio C++. If your C++ compiler needs to compile the main function but for some reason can't, you can rename the main C function and call it a wrapper version of C++mainly🇧🇷 For example, rename the main function from C toC_principaland write this C++ code:

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externo "C" int C_main(int, char**); // no se requiere para Oracle Developer Studio C++int main(int argc, char** argv) { return C_main(argc, argv); 🇧🇷

clear,C_principalmust be declared in C code to return an int and must return an int. As mentioned above, with Oracle Developer Studio C++, you don't have to go through this hassle.

Even if your program consists primarily of C code but uses C++ libraries, you must include the C++ runtime support libraries provided with the C++ compiler in your program. The easiest and best way to do this is to useCC, the C++ compiler driver, to link. The C++ compiler driver knows which libraries to link and in what order to link them. The specific libraries may depend on the options used when compiling the C++ code.

Suppose you have C program filesmain.the,f1.o, mif2.p, and you are using a C++ libraryhelper.a🇧🇷 With Oracle Developer Studio C++, you would issue the command.

CC -or main miprog.or f1.or f2.or auxiliary.a

The required C++ runtime libraries, such as libCrun and libCstd, are linked automatically. documentation forhelper.amay require you to use additional link time options. If for some reason you can't use the C++ compiler, you can use the- A birdCC command option to get the list of commands issued by the compiler and capture them in a shell script. Since the exact commands depend on command line options, you should examine the output of- A birdevery time the command line changes.

(Video) Tutorial 06 Mixing C and C++ Code Part 2 Project Example

For more information

Watch theOracle Developer Studio C/C++-Documentationfor the latest information about Oracle Developer Studio C and C++ compilers and tools, including man pages and readme files.

About the Author

Steve Clamagehas been with Sun (now Oracle) since 1994 and is currently the technical lead for the Oracle Developer Studio C++ compiler. He has been a member of the ANSI C++ Committee since its inception in 1990 and served as its chair from 1995 to 2014.


Is it OK to mix C and C++? ›

If the C++ compiler provides its own versions of the C headers, the versions of those headers used by the C compiler must be compatible. Oracle Developer Studio C and C++ compilers use compatible headers, and use the same C runtime library. They are fully compatible.

Can I compile C code in C++ compiler? ›

C++ is not a superset of C. There are places where they differ, which means some C code will not compile in C++ mode. As for C99 support, GCC and Clang are the closest. Microsoft does not support C99, and only focuses on C++ (which overlaps with C99 in places).

Can you include C libraries in C++? ›

Yes - C++ can use C libraries.

What happens if the following program is executed in C and C++? ›

1. What happens if the following program is executed in C and C++? Explanation: In C++ all the functions should be declared before it is called otherwise the C++ compiler will give an error but in case of C the compiler just gives a warning and the program can be executed.

Is learning C++ after C easy? ›

C++'s syntax itself isn't hard to learn, especially if you already know C. However, the versatility that makes C++ such a powerful and interesting language is itself the reason why many people find it hard.

Can I compile C with G ++? ›

g++ is used to compile C++ program. gcc is used to compile C program. g++ can compile any . c or .

Is C++ a strict superset of C? ›

C++ is a superset of C. All your C programs will work without any modification in this environment. However, we recommend that you get accustomed to new styles and techniques of C++ from day one.

Is C++ as fast as C? ›

Performance-based on Nature Of Language

C++ language is an object-oriented programming language, and it supports some important features like Polymorphism, Abstract Data Types, Encapsulation, etc. Since it supports object-orientation, speed is faster compared to the C language.

Can C++ do everything C can? ›

There's some C code that will not compile in a C++ compiler (mainly because it uses C++ reserved keywords), but generally speaking you can treat C++ as a superset of C. There's nothing you can do in C that you can't do in C++.

Why does C++ mangled names? ›

Name mangling is the encoding of function and variable names into unique names so that linkers can separate common names in the language. Type names may also be mangled. Name mangling is commonly used to facilitate the overloading feature and visibility within different scopes.

Can you mix C and Python? ›

Any code that you write using any compiled language like C, C++, or Java can be integrated or imported into another Python script. This code is considered as an "extension." A Python extension module is nothing more than a normal C library.

Are all Python libraries written in C? ›

Most of the Python Libraries are written in the C programming language. The Python standard library consists of more than 200 core modules. All these work together to make Python a high-level programming language.

Should I learn C or C++? ›

Compared to C, C++ has significantly more libraries and functions to use. If you're working with complex software, C++ is a better fit because you have more libraries to rely on. Thinking practically, having knowledge of C++ is often a requirement for a variety of programming roles.

What is the compatibility of C and C++? ›

Compatibility of C and C++ The C and C++ programming languages are closely related but have many significant differences. C++ began as a fork of an early, pre-standardized C, and was designed to be mostly source-and-link compatible with C compilers of the time.

In what situations would you work with C over C++? ›

C++ programs include server-side applications, networking, gaming, and even device drivers for your PC. However, if you need to code truly tiny systems, using C will result in less overhead than C++.

What is meant by a polymorphism in C++? ›

Polymorphism means "many forms", and it occurs when we have many classes that are related to each other by inheritance. Like we specified in the previous chapter; Inheritance lets us inherit attributes and methods from another class. Polymorphism uses those methods to perform different tasks.

Can I code in C++ if I know C? ›

Yes! C++ is nearly exactly a superset of Standard C95 (C90 and the 1995 Amendment 1). With very few exceptions, every valid C95 program is also a valid C++ program with the same meaning.

What is the hardest programming language? ›

Haskell. The language is named after a mathematician and is usually described to be one of the hardest programming languages to learn. It is a completely functional language built on lambda calculus.

How much time is required to learn C after C++? ›

If you already have a background in C programming, you can probably expect to spend about 3 or 4 months learning the additional features of C++. However, if you're starting from scratch with this language, you will probably spend over 6 months to learn it at the most basic level.

Should I use G++ or GCC? ›

For c++ you should use g++. It's the same compiler (e.g. the GNU compiler collection). GCC or G++ just choose a different front-end with different default options. In a nutshell: if you use g++ the frontend will tell the linker that you may want to link with the C++ standard libraries.

Can you run C code without compiling? ›

You must compile the program first to make an executable, and then you must run the program to get its output.

Why %g is used in C? ›

%g and %G are simplifiers of the scientific notation floats %e and %E. %g will take a number that could be represented as %f (a simple float or double) or %e (scientific notation) and return it as the shorter of the two. The output of your print statement will depend on the value of sum.

What is the hardest thing to learn in C++? ›

The most complicated feature of C++ is templates, because of their power and awkward syntax. It isn't hard to use pre-written ones, and it isn't hard to write a simple templated class or function, but C++ templates are a compiler-executed Turing-complete language.

Which is more tough C or C++? ›

Answers: Actually, both are difficult and both are easy. C++ is built upon C and thus supports all features of C and also, it has object-oriented programming features. When it comes to learning, size-wise C is smaller with few concepts to learn while C++ is vast. Hence we can say C is easier than C++.

Does C allow OOP? ›

C is a Procedural Oriented language. It does not support object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance programming.

What is fastest programming language? ›

Compiled Languages

As a result, they tend to be faster and more efficient to execute than interpreted languages. They also give the developer more control over hardware aspects, like memory management and CPU usage. Examples of purely compiled languages are C, C++, Erlang, Haskell, Rust, and Go.

Is C still used today? ›

The C programming language has been alive and kicking since 1972, and it still reigns as one of the fundamental building blocks of our software-studded world.

Which coding language is fastest? ›

C++ is the fastest programming language. It is a compiled language with a broad variety of applications that is simple to learn. C++ was the clear winner, with Java and Python coming in second and third, respectively.

Why is C++ so overcomplicated? ›

One of the reasons C++ is rather complicated is because it was designed to address problems that crop up in large programs. At the time C++ was created as AT&T, their biggest C program was about 10 million lines of code. At that scale, C doesn't function very well.

Is C++ still in demand? ›

It is a versatile language, so it remains in high demand amongst professionals, such as software developers, game developers, C++ analysts and backend developers, etc. As per the TIOBE index of 2022, C++ lies at 4th position in the world's most popular language.

Is C++ disliked? ›

Although C++ is one of the most widespread programming languages, many prominent software engineers criticize C++ (the language, and its compilers) for being overly complex and fundamentally flawed. Among the critics have been: Robert Pike, Joshua Bloch, Linus Torvalds, Donald Knuth, Richard Stallman, and Ken Thompson.

What variable names are not allowed in C++? ›

Names can contain letters, digits and underscores. Names must begin with a letter or an underscore (_) Names are case sensitive ( myVar and myvar are different variables) Names cannot contain whitespaces or special characters like !, #, %, etc.

Which company owns C++? ›

C++ programming language was developed in 1980 by Bjarne Stroustrup at bell laboratories of AT&T (American Telephone & Telegraph), located in U.S.A. Bjarne Stroustrup is known as the founder of C++ language.
C++ history.
LanguageYearDeveloped By
C++1980Bjarne Stroustrup
5 more rows

Can you mix two coding languages together? ›

Just yes. You can't use c and c++ together as they're different programming approaches. But yes, u can definitely use two or more languages at once. The best example is in web development, where you you would use HTML, CSS , PHP, JavaScript for the front end and MySQL for the back end.

Is C harder than Python? ›

The syntax of a C program is harder than Python. Syntax of Python programs is easy to learn, write and read. In C, the Programmer has to do memory management on their own. Python uses an automatic garbage collector for memory management.

Why is C so much faster than Python? ›

C is a faster language compared to Python as it is compiled. Python programs are usually slower than C programs as they are interpreted. In C, the type of the various variables must be declared when they are created, and only values of those particular types must be assigned to them.

What language is Python built on? ›

The answer to the question "in which language python is written?" is - Python written in the C programming language. It means that the Python interpreter is written in C. CPython is that Python implementation that is done in the C language. CPython supports a wide range of libraries and modules.

Is Python built on top of C? ›

Since most modern OS are written in C, compilers/interpreters for modern high-level languages are also written in C. Python is not an exception - its most popular/"traditional" implementation is called CPython and is written in C. There are other implementations: IronPython (Python running on .

What are the 3 main libraries of C++? ›

The Diagnostics Library. The General Utilities Library.

What is '%' in C programming? ›

The modulo operator, denoted by %, is an arithmetic operator. The modulo division operator produces the remainder of an integer division. Syntax: If x and y are integers, then the expression: x % y.

Are C++ Devs in demand? ›

C++ Developers are much in demand, and they enjoy some of the high-paying jobs in the industry. The average base pay of a C++ developer is about $103,035 per year. The amount of money you make as a C++ programmer will, however, depend on your skillset, qualifications, and expertise.

Is C good for developers? ›

C is the language where you can find the basis for these concepts. Hence, it is the best language for those who are new to programming. C programming language uses blocks to separate pieces of code performing different tasks. This helps make programming easier and keeps the code clean.

Is it possible to learn C++ in one month? ›

It takes around 1 to 3 months to learn the basics and syntax of C++ programming. Gaining mastery in the C++ programming language can take around 2 years.

Is C worth learning in 2022? ›

C might be old, but it is definitely relevant in 2022 and will likely remain so. The simplicity of C provides you with a perfect gateway into the programming world. It helps you understand the detailed implementation of any algorithm.

Should I learn Python or C first? ›

Python is always recommended if you're looking for an easy and even fun programming language to learn first. Rather than having to jump into strict syntax rules, Python reads like English and is simple to understand for someone who's new to programming.

Can I learn C++ if I already know C? ›

Yes! C++ is nearly exactly a superset of Standard C95 (C90 and the 1995 Amendment 1). With very few exceptions, every valid C95 program is also a valid C++ program with the same meaning.

Is it better to learn C or C++ first? ›

As much as you may think C and C++ are similar, they aren't. There's no exact order of learning any of these two languages. What may work in one language may not work in the other, although they are basically one derived from the other. C++ is a much larger, much more complex language than C.

Is C and C++ outdated? ›

There's nothing outwardly wrong with C++, – that's why it's still so widely used today.” In 2022, C++ is a useful, up-to-date, and vital programming language, especially as many of the world's major operating systems such as Microsoft Windows were built from the program.

How much time will it take to learn C after C++? ›

Is C++ hard to learn?
Programming levelTime it'll take
Absolute beginnerAt least 3 months
Already a programmer1 - 3 months
Building mastery in C++2 years - forever
Feb 8, 2021

How long should it take to learn C++? ›

It does not take long to learn C++ for experienced programmers. You can expect to master the syntax of C++ in about two to three months if you devote about 10 hours every week to learning C++. However, to become highly proficient at programming in C++, expect to spend at least one year studying full-time.

What is the second hardest coding language to learn? ›

LISP comes second on the list of oldest programming languages after FORTRAN but it is still the high-level language for AI. It is hard to learn as it is a fragmented language with domain-specific solutions.

What is the hardest language coding? ›

C++ C++ is considered to be one of the most powerful, fastest, and toughest programming languages.

Can you code the same code twice? ›

Rule #3 of The Programmer's Code

Welcome to the third rule of The Programmer's Code, Never Write the Same Code Twice.

Is C++ tougher than C? ›

We can say that C is a hands-on language and we can program it in whichever way we want. C++ consists of some high-level object-oriented programming constructs that help us to code high-level programs. Thus if we say C is easy then C++ is also easier to code.

Is C++ more difficult than C? ›

C++ was designed to be easier to use and to allow programmers to make efficient use of computer resources. C++ also has some similarities with C, but there are some important differences. C++ is a good choice for experienced programmers who want to learn a new programming language.

Why is C++ Losing popularity? ›

As a low level language, C++ is losing out on market share due to a trend for programmers to opt to code in higher level language (according to the long term trends in TIOBE's programming index). Higher level languages are easy to read and projects happen quickly, and are thus often the cheaper option.

Why do people still use C instead of C++? ›

Picking C over C++ is a way for developers and those who maintain their code to embrace enforced minimalism and avoid tangling with the excesses of C++. Of course, C++ has a rich set of high-level features for good reason.

Do programmers still use C? ›

The C programming language will turn fifty years old in 2022. Yet despite its long history, C remains one of the top "most-used" programming languages in many "popular programming languages" surveys. For example, check out the TIOBE Index, which tracks the popularity of different programming languages.


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5. Lec 1: How to Install and Set Visual Studio Code and MinGW Compiler for C and C++ | C++ Tutorials
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