8.1 How memory works - Introduction to psychology (2023)

learning goals

At the end of this section, you can:

  • Discuss the three basic functions of memory.
  • Describe the steps of memory storage.
  • Describe and distinguish between procedural and declarative memory and semantic and episodic memory

Learning and memory work together to improve our ability to navigate our environment and survive. Learning refers to a change in behavior that results from acquiring knowledge about the world, and memory is the process by which this knowledge arises.encoded,stored, and thenrecovered🇧🇷 Memory is an information processing system; For this reason, we often compare it to a computer. While a computer provides a useful analog to human memory in many cases, there are still many differences that make our ability to encode, manage, and retrieve information unique. After Paul Broca's discovery in 1861 that disruption of a specific area in the left frontal cortex (Broca's area) leads to impairments in speech production, researchers and medical professionals began to understand that other mental functions such as sensation , perception and voluntary movement, certain areas of the brain are also affected. This concept is known asfunctional location.

The importance of the functional location of the brain was clear, but does this also indicate that there are specific areas of the brain that are important for memory? There are different types of memory, and certain regions of the brain are more important than other areas for some forms of memory.

One can imagine that, for the most part, memory occurs on a linear continuum, that is, that memory occurs in stages organized in time. This process starts with the encoding of the information, then this information is stored through replay, and finally the information is retrieved.

8.1 How memory works - Introduction to psychology (1)Figure 8.01.Coding involves receiving information from sensory receptors, which allows its further processing. Storage is the preservation of selected information that has been encrypted. Retrieving or retrieving information from memory and returning to consciousness refers to accessing and retrieving information that has been properly encrypted and stored.


We receive information in our brain through a process calledcoding, which represents the process of receiving information and converting it into a usable thought form (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2014). The previous chapter on sensation and perception describes in detail how transmission through the various sense organs takes place, making information available for encoding. As soon as we receive sensory information from the environment, the brain processes and organizes this information (ie what should and should not be considered and passed on to subsequent memory systems). Information is encoded through automatic processing, which absorbs much more information than we can actually retain. Subsequently, attentional processes allow us to categorize information to further prioritize information in short-term memory.

Chances are if someone asks you what you had for lunch today, you can easily recall this information. This is known asautomatic processing, or the encoding of details such as time, space, frequency, and meaning of words. Automatic processing generally occurs without conscious awareness. Remembering the last time you studied for a test is another example of automatic processing. But what about the actual test material you studied? It probably required a lot of work and attention on your part to encrypt this information. This is known ascomplex processing.

8.1 How memory works - Introduction to psychology (2)When you learn new skills, such as driving a car, you have to make an effort and pay attention to encode information about how to start the car, how to brake, how to turn, etc. Once you learn to drive, it can automatically encode additional information about that skill. (Credit: Robert Couse-Baker)

What are the most effective ways to ensure important memories are securely encrypted? Even a simple sentence is easier to remember when it makes sense (Anderson, 1984). Read the following sentences (Bransford & McCarrell, 1974), then turn your face and count backwards from 30 to zero, then try to write the sentences (don't look back on this page!).

  1. The notes were sour because the seam was ripping.
  2. The trip was not delayed because the bottle broke.
  3. The hayloft was important because the fabric was torn.

How good were you? The statements she wrote were probably confusing and hard to remember. Now try to write them again using the following prompts: bagpipe, name of the ship and paratrooper. Then count backward from 40 by fours and check how well you remembered the sentences this time. You can see that the sentences are much more memorable now because each one has been put into context. Material encodes much better if you make it meaningful. This exercise also shows the effect ofinterference(a distracting task) that can reduce the amount of information encrypted.

Regarding various methods of encoding information, Hermann Ebbinghaus pioneered experimental memory research in the 1880s, documenting what he calledlearning curve, It is likeI forgot the curve🇧🇷 These curves are graphical representations of learning achievement in relation to the amount of exposure to a stimulus and the amount of information lost (the amount of information that cannot be clearly recalled) over time, for the learning curve and I forget. The learning curve is used in two ways; to describe recall over time after presentation of the same task and also to describe the recallability of a body of knowledge over time. Ebbinghaus showed that different memory tasks can lead to differences in recall, as found between performance on memory tasks and recognition tasks. Recognition tasks only require people to establish whether or not information has been previously presented, compared to retrieval tasks, which require people to access stored memory and report what they encoded, resulting in responses faster and more accurate to reconnaissance tasks compared to prospecting. Chores.

There are three types of encoding. The encoding of words and their meaning is calledsemantic encoding🇧🇷 It was first demonstrated by William Bousfield (1935) in an experiment in which he asked people to memorize words. The 60 words were actually grouped into 4 categories of meaning, although the participants did not know this because the words were presented randomly. When asked to memorize the words, they tended to recall them in categories, showing that they were paying attention to the meaning of the words as they learned them.

visual codingis the encoding of images, and acoustic encoding is the encoding of sounds, especially words. To see how visual coding works, read this word list:Auto, Level, Dog, Truth, Book, Courage🇧🇷 If you were then asked to remember the words on this list, which do you think you would remember the most? You will probably find it easier to remember the wordscar dog,miBook, and more difficult to remember the wordspure truth,miWert🇧🇷 Why is this? Because you can remember images (mental images) more easily than words alone. when you read the wordscar dog,miBookyou have created images of these things in your mind. These are concrete and figurative words. On the other hand, abstract words likepure truth,miWertthey are weak words. Image-rich words are visually and semantically encoded (Paivio, 1986), building stronger memory.

Let us now turn our attentionacoustic coding🇧🇷 You are driving your car and a song comes on the radio that you haven't heard in at least 10 years, but you sing it and remember every word. In the United States, children often learn the alphabet through songs and the number of days in each month through rhymes:Thirty days have September, April, June and November; / Everyone is thirty-one, / except February, with twenty-eight days off, / and twenty-nine in every leap year.” These lessons are easy to remember because of the acoustic coding. We encode the sounds that words make. That's one of the reasons why so much of what we teach young children is done through songs, rhymes, and rhythms.

Which of the three types of encoding do you think would allow you to better remember verbal information? The psychologists Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving (1975) conducted a series of experiments to find out. Participants were given words along with questions about them. The questions asked participants to process the words on one of three levels. Visual processing issues included, among other things, the issue of letter fonts. Acoustic processing questions asked participants about the sound or rhyme of words, and semantic processing questions asked participants about word meaning. After being presented with the words and questions, the participants were given an unexpected recall or recognition task. Precise semantically encoded words were more likely to be remembered compared to visually or aurally encoded words, suggesting that semantic encoding requires a deeper level of processing than more superficial visual or auditory encoding. Craik and Tulving concluded that the strength of the information to be encoded depended on theprocessing depth.Depth of processing suggests that the more meaning and importance you give to information when encoding, the more likely it is that the information will be correctly retrieved later and the easier it will be to access that information.

it isself reference effectit represents a tendency for a person to better recall information related to himself as compared to less personally relevant material (Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker, 1977). Ageneration effectIt has also been documented (Slameka & Graf, 1978) that information you generate or create is more likely to be accurately retrieved than information you hear or read. Also,pPhysical movement and acting on information.with others it has been shown to improve later recall (Noice & Noice, 2001), and recent research suggestsMake associations with the need for survival.they also tend to increase word recall (Nairne, Thompson & Pandeirada, 2007).

Other influences on later memory recall include the specificity of the encoding and the use of retrieval keys. Tulving and Thompson (1978; Unsworth, Spillers, & Brewer, 2012) proposed that information is not stored in memory as isolated and individual elements, but as parts of a scene or action in a specific context. Thus, encoding a context to remember information leads to more accurate and accessible information retrieval, calledencoding specificity.Godden and Baddeley (1975) asked a group of divers to memorize a list of words, memorizing words half on land and half underwater. During the recall task, half of the subjects remembered the words in the same context in which they were encoded (on land or underwater) and the other half remembered the information in the opposite context in which they encoded the information. Context retrieval data showed that memory was better when the encoding and retrieval contexts were the same compared to context inversion. Finally,recall noticesSuggest information that is more readily available to remember when a helpful prompt or reminder is associated with the information encoding. As an example of recall cues, Schab (1990) found that participants who were presented with an environmental odor, such as chocolate, during encoding were able to recall information more accurately than participants who were not presented with any. smell. later. Do you remember the concepts of this chapter?


One of the most influential models for explaining the organization of memory is the information processing model (also known as the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, multiple storage model, modal model, or standard theory of memory, 1968). The model conceptualizes memory as a flow of encoded information through a series of stages:sensory memory,short term memory, and finallylong term memory. In particular, after information is encoded, a short-term memory process known as working memory allows for the maintenance and manipulation of various modalities of information before it is transferred to long-term memory.

8.1 How memory works - Introduction to psychology (3)Figure 8.02.According to the information processing model, information passes linearly through three different stages to be stored in long-term memory. The rehearsal is used to build a stronger memory trace that, if rehearsed long enough, is stored in long-term memory.


In the information processing model of human memory, stimuli from the environment are processed first. Sensory memory: storage of brief sensory events such as images, sounds, and tastes. Sensory memory is extremely limited in retaining information, until a few seconds before the information is classified, which is processed in the next stage, short-term memory. We are constantly bombarded with sensory information through the transduction of our various types of sensory receptors. We cannot absorb all or even most of this information, and each individual level of the memory process acts as a filter as the information travels from sensory memory to short-term memory and eventually to long-term memory. where the information is stored. Recovery. For example, what did your teacher wear in the last class? Most of the time, as long as the teacher is dressed appropriately, a teacher's attire is not immediately important, and therefore generally not considered important enough to rehearse and store in long-term memory. We discard sensory information about sights, sounds, smells, and even textures that we don't consider valuable information. Consider driving an hour or more. You obviously absorb information around you while driving, as evidenced by your ability to successfully navigate to your destination, but you probably won't be able to remember small specific details about your driving, such as: How many blue cars you passed or the names of all the signs of the streets that passed on the way. When we consider something valuable, the information is placed in our short-term memory system, but most of the information we process is filtered out so that we can focus on what we consider to be important.

A sensory memory study examined the importance of valuable information in short-term memory storage. In one of the best-known experimental projects in psychology, J.R. Stroop discovered a memory phenomenon in the 1930s: it will name a color more easily if it is printed in that color, which is called a color.syrup effect🇧🇷 In other words, the word "red" is named faster, regardless of what color the word appears in, than any word colored in red. Do an experiment: name the colors of the words given to you in the image below. Do not read the words, but say the color the word is printed in. For example, if you see the word "yellow" written in green, you should say "green" and not "yellow." This experiment is fun and not as easy as it seems.

8.1 How memory works - Introduction to psychology (4)Figure 8.03.The Stroop effect describes why we have trouble naming a color when the word and the color of the word are different.


Short Term Memory (STM) is a temporary storage system that processes incoming sensory memories. Although some advocate not distinguishing between short-term memory and working memory (Cowen, 2008; Rose, Myerson, Roediger, & Hale, 2010), for consistency with other introductory psychology texts (Licht, Hull, & Ballantyne, 2014) Let us consider this short-term memory as a stage in the information processing model, as well as a place where information is stored, and working memory as a set of processes that allow us to obtain and manipulate information. Memory within working memory allows you to rehearse strategies or assign meaning to information to ensure accurate retrieval later.

The capacity of working memory is limited and works in aBottleneck model in information processing🇧🇷 The bottleneck analogy refers to the flow of information through memory, starting at the bottom of a hypothetical bottle where large amounts of information are processed through the senses, and when information is processed in memory work, the amount of information that can pass through the bottleneck and in long-term memory the information stored is drastically reduced (due to the tight bottleneck) compared to what was originally processed in the encoding step. Working memory processes exist right where you squeeze the bottle, allowing us to hold information in working memory for about 20 seconds, increasing the likelihood that the information will be safely stored in memory at long term. George Miller (1956), in his research on memory capacity that contributed to the early days of cognitive psychology, found that most people can retain about 7 items on the MTS. Some remember 5, others 9, so he called the STM capacity 7 plus or minus 2. Recent research reassessing working memory capacity suggests that working memory capacity is even lower, on average about four plus or minus one unit. The ability found by Miller may be related to the use of heuristics (discussed later), such as information clustering (Cowan, 2001).

Think of short-term memory like the information you've displayed on your computer screen: a document, a spreadsheet, or a web page. Information goes from short-term memory to long-term memory (you save it to your hard drive) or is discarded (delete a document or close a web browser). The conscious repetition of information known asAl finalallows information to move from temporary short-term memory to long-term memory, a process known asmemory consolidation.

You may be wondering, "How much information can our memory process at one time?" To test the capacity and duration of your short-term memory, have a partner read the series of random numbers below aloud, labeling each series with the words "Ready?" Begin and end each one by saying “Remember.” At this point, you should try to write the sequence of numbers from memory.

8.1 How memory works - Introduction to psychology (5)Figure 6.Work through this sequence of numbers using the memory exercise above to determine the longest sequence of digits you can memorize.

Write the longest string where you hit the series. As mentioned above, Miller capacity reviews of seven plus or minus two on average suggest that most people will have a working memory capacity of about 4 plus or minus one unit unless they use a memory technique like fragmentation. Memory is a little better for random numbers than for random letters (Jacobs, 1887), and also generally a little better for information we hear (auditory coding) than we see (visual coding) (Anderson, 1969), but processed consequently. top Information with higher processing depth tends to be more readily available compared to less deep information encoding.


In humans, working memory is made up of several organized processes and consists of at least two distinct mechanisms that are used to obtain and manipulate verbal and visuospatial information, a mediating mechanism that mixes the different forms of information, and a global mechanism of allocation of attention, which focuses on the use of cognitive resources between subareas of working memory. This structured organization of working memory processes was first proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and was originally thought to consist of three distinct subsystems known asvisual-spatial sketchbook, aepisodic puffer,It's inphonological loop.These three subsystems are then coordinated by an attentional steering mechanism known asCentral administration.

According to Baddeley's (2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1994) model, the phonological loop is primarily concerned with the processing and maintenance of verbal and auditory information. This mechanism has also been likened to what we understand as our internal monologue, which we use to recite and rehearse information to build strong leadership to remember later. We use the phonological cycle when we read, try to solve problems in our minds, or learn new vocabulary. Studies have shown that, on average, people can actively manipulate about two seconds of verbal information without relying on repetition practice (Baddeley, 2002).

(Video) Introduction to Psychology | Chapter 8.1 | How Memory Functions

The visuospatial notebook, for its part, represents a mechanism separated from the phonological loop that allows the maintenance and manipulation of visual and spatial information. This system allows us to navigate a room without his vision, drink his coffee without spilling it on his new pants, and also helps manipulate spatial perspective. Using the visuospatial sketchpad, we can imagine a map of the campus and determine which route to take to get to a conference you want to attend, or take alternative routes to avoid traffic jams. Studies examining the visuospatial sketchpad have shown that people have difficulty performing two visuospatial tasks simultaneously, suggesting that this aspect of working memory is quite demanding in terms of cognitive resource load (Repovš & Baddeley, 2006). ).

The central executive represents an attention distribution mechanism. Much like a group leader or manager of lower-level workers, the core leader is the process of determining what information to focus on and what working memory to use. The central executive also decides what information to ignore and also has limited capacity, which explains why people are less productive on individual tasks when they are doing many different tasks at the same time (texting, eating, and driving at the same time). EastEriksen's flanking taskrepresents a method widely used in cognitive science to quantify the ability of the central executive to quickly and accurately suppress (ignore distractions) distractors in its recognition of and response to target stimuli (Eriksen & Eriksen, 1974).

Finally, the episodic buffer acts as a mediating mechanism that temporarily brings together information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchbook, and long-term memory under the control of the central executive (Baddeley, 2000). This process forms an important bridge between the information available in long-term memory and consciousness, allowing us to plan for the future, review past events, and solve problems based on solutions that have worked in the past. The episodic buffer also operates with limited processing power and allows people to use integrated units of information stored in long-term memory to visualize new concepts (Baddeley, 2012).

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Figure 8.04.Representation of the components that make up the Baddeley model of working memory. The different parts also occur in the relative brain areas thought to mediate the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchbook. Adapted from Redshaw, 2009.


Long-term memory (MLP) is the continuous storage of information. Unlike short-term memory, there are no limits to the storage capacity of LTM. It includes everything you can remember that happened more than a few minutes ago, up to everything you can remember that happened days, weeks, and years ago. To use the computer analogy, the information on your LTM would be like the information you have stored on your hard drive. It's not on your desktop (your short-term memory), but you can access this information whenever you want, at least most of the time. Not all long-term memories are strong memories. Some reminders can only be accessed through command prompts. For example, you can easily remember a fact: "What is the capital of the United States?" - or a procedure - "How do you ride a bike?" - but you may have trouble remembering the name of the restaurant, remember where you had dinner when you were on holiday in France last summer. A warning, p. For example, the fact that the restaurant is named after the owner, who told you about their mutual interest in soccer, can help you remember the name of the restaurant.

Long-term memory is divided into two types:explicitmiimplicitly🇧🇷 Understanding the different types is important because a person's age or certain types of trauma or brain disorders can leave certain types of TML intact while wreaking havoc on other types.

8.1 How memory works - Introduction to psychology (7)Figure 8.05.There are two components of long-term memory: explicit and implicit. Explicit memory includes both episodic and semantic memory. Implicit memory includes procedural memory and things learned through conditioning.

explicit memories(Also know asdeclarative memories) are the ones we remember and remember consciously. Explicit memory has to do with storing facts and events and is the type of memory that you know and can consciously express. For example, if you are studying for a chemistry test, the material you are studying will be part of your explicit memory. Explicit memory consists of two parts: semantic memory and episodic memory.

semantic memoryIt has to do with language and knowledge about language. An example would be the question “What are you doing?argumentativeKnowledge about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts are stored in our semantic memory. For example, the answers to the following questions are stored in your semantic memory:

  • Who was the first president of the United States?
  • What is democracy?
  • What is the longest river in the world?

episodic memoryit is information about events we personally experience. The concept of episodic memory was first proposed about 40 years ago (Tulving, 1972). Since then, Tulving and others have analyzed the scientific evidence and reformulated the theory. Scholars currently believe that episodic memory is the recollection of events in specific places at specific times, the what, where, and when of an event (Tulving, 2002). It includes the recall of visual images, as well as a sense of familiarity (Hassabis & Maguire, 2007).

Often our most vivid episodic memories are associated with intense emotions. AFlash memoryis a highly detailed and extraordinarily vivid episodic reminiscence of the circumstances surrounding surprising, important, or exciting news. With flash memories, people often remember the exact moment they learned of the event and specific details about it: where you were, who or what source informed you, what you did next, and how you felt. Flash memories, in particular, are not firsthand memories.experienced the eventinstead of the experiences associated with itlearn about an event(Hirst and Phelps, 2016). Although memories appear intense and vivid, research suggests that flash memories are prone to inaccuracy and may be missing some important details (Hirst et al., 2015).

implicit memories(also known as non-declarative memories) are memories that are not part of our conscious mind. They are memories formed from behaviors. A common example of implicit memory is the callrepeat primer🇧🇷 Repetition priming represents a general form of implicit memory in which a prior encounter with information facilitates subsequent processing of the same information (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2013). Repeated preparation has been documented in several tasks, such as: B. Word identification and lexical decision-making tasks (Morton, 1979), word and picture naming tasks (Brown et al., 1991), and reading tasks. fluid rereading (Masson, 1984) . In all of these studies, prior experience with the stimuli leads to faster performance on a subsequent task, even if the subject does not remember encountering the stimuli before.

A classic demonstration of readiness for repetition, described by Jacoby and Dallas (1981), asked participants to study a list of known words and answer a question about each word as they progressed through the task. Participants were sometimes asked about the physical form of the word, for example, B. “Does the word contain the letter?r?” participants were sometimes asked about the sound of the word, as in “the word rhymesZug🇧🇷 and sometimes participants were asked about the semantic features of the word, such as B. "Is the word in the center of the nervous system?" Referring to Craik and Lockhart's (1972) depth processing theories, asking participants about the physical form of the word should produce superficial processing of information, while asking about sound should produce deeper processing. and semantic questions should produce the deepest levels of information processing. After encoding the information, explicit memory was tested with a simple recognition and recall task. This task showed that recognition and recall were higher for information encoded at deeper levels (semantic encoding), while superficially encoded information was less available for recall and recognition. In the implicit memory task, participants were given the words one at a time for just 35ms, followed by a series of asterisks as a mask. The participants had to repeat the spoken words, demonstrating that the participants did not need to remember which words they had already seen before, they only identified which words were presented very briefly. On average, regardless of how they were studied, word recognition was around 80%, compared to 65% for control words that had not been presented before. This is a typical finding in implicit memory tasks, as even without conscious recall of previously presented stimuli, a faster and more accurate response to previously presented words compared to non-presented words.

Another important implicit memory task created by Blakemore (1977) demonstrates implicit learning processes in amnesic patients. As patients like H.M., who suffered bilateral damage to the hippocampus and lateral temporal lobes, were unable to form new memories (anterograde amnesia), these patients were asked to complete a drawing exercise in which they were asked to draw internal patterns. and specific shapes while tracing his moving hands he saw in a mirror. Initially, this task is extremely difficult and shows that the participants have great trouble staying within the lines. However, patients with amnesia who do not remember performing the task previously show significant improvement over time, showing clear implicit processes related to learning and memory.

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Figure 8.06.H.M., a patient with anterograde amnesia, completes a motor learning task in a mirror for a few days. Improvement on task over time is evidence of implicit learning and memory. (after Kalat, 2015)

procedure memoryit's a kind of implicit memory: it stores information about how to do things where you can perform actions without consciously supervising the threads that need to be configured to perform the task. It is the memory of skillful actions such as B. Brushing teeth, driving and swimming. By learning to swim freestyle, you will practice the stroke of swimming: how to move your arms, how to turn your head to alternate breathing from side to side, and how to kick with your legs. You will practice this many times until you become good at it. Once you learn to freestyle and your body knows how to move in the water, you'll never forget freestyle swimming, even if you haven't swum for a few decades. If you give a guitar to a talented guitarist, they'll still be able to play reasonably well long after they haven't played.

emotional conditioningit is also a type of implicit memory. Memories acquired through classical conditioning are also classified as implicit, like feeling hungry when you smell your favorite food truck. Associations are implicitly generated between stimuli that often occur together, evoking thoughts of the associated stimulus when the first occurs. Evidence for implicit memory can be found in studies withprimerProcedures, which are processes by which individuals are measured on how well they do on tasks when, under conscious experience, they are instructed on how to respond to a task. Implicit memory also contributes to the illusion of the truth effect, in which people are more likely to evaluate statements as true if they have experienced that statement before, regardless of whether it is true or not.


Episodic memories are also known as autobiographical memories. Let's quickly test your autobiographical memory. What were you wearing exactly five years ago today? What did you have for lunch on April 10, 2009? You may find it difficult, if not impossible, to answer these questions. Can you remember all the events you have experienced throughout your life: meals, conversations, clothing choices, weather conditions, etc.? Most likely, none of us can remotely answer these questions; however, the American actress Mariluchicken, best known for the television programTaxi,can remember. She has an amazing and extremely superior autobiographical memory.

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Marilu Henner's super-autobiographical memory is known as hyperthymesia. (Credit: Mark Richardson)

Very few people can remember events in this way; Currently only 12 known individuals have this ability and only a few have been studied (Parker, Cahill and McGaugh 2006). and althoughhyperthymesiatwo children in the United States seem to have memories long before their tenth birthday.


So you've worked hard to encode (through heavy processing) and store vital information for your upcoming final exam. How do you retrieve this information from memory when you need it? The act of retrieving information from memory and returning it to consciousness is called retrieval. This is similar to locating and opening a previously saved document on your computer's hard drive. Now it's back on your desktop and you can work with it again. Our ability to retrieve information from long-term memory is critical to our daily functioning. You need to be able to extract information from memory to do everything from brushing your hair and brushing your teeth to driving to work and knowing how to do your job when you get there.

There are three ways to retrieve information from your long-term memory storage system: retrieval, recognition, and relearning.To rememberThis is what we think of most often when we talk about memory recall: it means that you can access information without any clues. For example, you would use Remember for a writing test.recognitionit happens when you identify information you previously learned after encountering it again. It involves a process of comparison. When you take a multiple choice test, you have recognition to help you choose the correct answer. Or, for example, suppose you graduated from high school 10 years ago and returned to your hometown for your 10th reunion. You may not remember all of your classmates, but you can recognize many of them from their yearbook photos.

The third way of recovery isrelearn, and it's exactly what it sounds like. It is about learning information that you have previously learned. For example, Whitney studied Spanish in high school but did not have the opportunity to speak Spanish after high school. Whitney is now 31 years old and her company offered him the opportunity to work in her Mexico City office. To prepare, she enrolls in a Spanish course at the local community center. She is surprised at how quickly she can pick up the language after not speaking it for 13 years; This is an example of relearn.


Memory is a system or process that stores what we have learned for future use. Our memory has three basic functions: encoding, storing and retrieving information. Encoding is the process of putting information into our memory system through automatic or elaborate processing. Storage is the preservation of information, and retrieval is the process of bringing information from storage to consciousness through retrieval, recognition, and relearning. The idea that information is processed in three storage systems is called the information processing model of memory. First, environmental stimuli enter our sensory memory for periods ranging from less than a second to a few seconds. These stimuli that we perceive and pay attention to migrate to short-term memory (also called working memory). According to the information processing model, when we repeat this information, it is moved to long-term memory for permanent storage. Other models, such as Baddeley and Hitch, suggest that there is more of a feedback loop between short-term and long-term memory. Long-term memory has virtually unlimited storage capacity and is divided into implicit and explicit memory. Finally, retrieval is the act of taking memories out of storage and bringing them back into awareness. This happens through memory, recognition, and relearning.


Openstax Psychology Text by Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett and Marion Perlmutter licensed CC BY v4.0. https://openstax.org/details/books/psychology


Review questions:

1.________ is another name for short-term memory.

a. sensory memory

B. episodic memory

C. working memory

i.e. implicit memory

2.The storage capacity of long-term memory is ________.

a. a little or two information

B. seven bits, plus or minus two

limited c.

i.e. essentially unlimited

3.The three functions of memory are ________.

a. automatic processing, complex processing and storage

B. Encoding, Processing and Storage

C. automatic processing, laborious processing and recovery

i.e. encoding, storage and retrieval

Critical Thinking Questions:

1.Compare and contrast implicit and explicit memory.

2.Name and describe the three stages of memory using the Atkinson-Shiffrin model.

3.Compare and contrast the two ways we encode information.

Personal Application Questions:

1.Describe something you learned that is now in your procedural memory. Discuss how you got this information.

2.Describe something you learned in high school that is now in your semantic memory.


acoustic coding

(Video) 8.1 Memory

automatic processing

declarative memory

complex processing

episodic memory

explicit memory

information processing model

implicit memory

Long Term Memory (LTP)


memory consolidation

to remember


Al final



self reference effect

semantic encoding

semantic memory

sensory memory

Short Term Memory (STM)


visual coding

exercise answers

Review questions:

1. C


(Video) PSY 101 : Memory


Critical Thinking Questions:

1.Compare and contrast implicit and explicit memory.

2.Name and describe the three stages of memory using the Atkinson-Shiffrin model.

3.Compare and contrast the two ways we encode information.


Acoustic encoding:Insert sounds, words and music

automatic processing:Encoding details of information such as time, space, frequency, and meaning of words

declarative memory:Type of long-term memory of facts and events that we personally experience

complex processing:Encoding information that requires effort and attention Encoding: entering information into the memory system

episodic memory:A type of declarative memory that contains information about personally experienced events, also known as autobiographical memory

explicit reminder:Memories that we consciously try to remember and recover

Information processing model:Memory model that establishes that we process information through three systems: sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory

implicit memory:Memories that are not part of our consciousness

Long-term memory (LTP):continuous storage of information

Memory:System or process that stores what is learned for future use

memory consolidation:active practice to transfer information from short-term memory to long-term memory. Procedural memory: A type of long-term memory for skillful actions, such as B. Brushing teeth, driving, and swimming

to remember:Access information without notices

Recognition:Identify previously learned information after re-encountering it, usually in response to a clue

In conclusion:conscious repetition of information to be remembered

relearn:Previously Learned Learning Information

recovery:Act of retrieving information from long-term memory and returning to consciousness.

Self-reference effect:The tendency of a person to retain information related to himself better than material that is less personally relevant.

semantic encoding:Insertion of words and their meaning.

semantic memory:Declarative type of memory about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts.

sensory memory:Storage of brief sensory events such as images, sounds, and tastes.

(Video) Openstax Psychology - Ch8 - Memory

Short Term Memory (STM):(also known as working memory) holds approximately seven bits of information before it is forgotten or stored, as well as information that is retrieved and used

Store:Creation of a permanent record of information.

visual coding:image input

(Video) Intro to Psych: 8.1 - Memory


1. Neuropsychology 8.1: Memory and the Brain
(Puck Reeders)
2. Lecture 8.1 - Memory is a Plural Verb
(Steve Joordens)
3. Lecture 8.1 - Memory is a Plural Verb
(Steve Joordens)
4. Week 2 - Memory - Introduction to Psychology
5. Memory Improvement Techniques (Intro Psych Tutorial #79)
6. Introduction to Memory [AP Psychology Unit 5 Topic 1] (5.1)
(Mr. Sinn)


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